# 2024 № 1 Електротехніка і Електромеханіка

Постійне посилання колекціїhttps://repository.kpi.kharkov.ua/handle/KhPI-Press/72962

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Документ Maximizing solar photovoltaic system efficiency by multivariate linear regression based maximum power point tracking using machine learning(Національний технічний університет "Харківський політехнічний інститут", 2024) Paquianadin, V.; Navin Sam, K.; Koperundevi, G.Introduction. In recent times, there has been a growing popularity of photovoltaic (PV) systems, primarily due to their numerous advantages in the field of renewable energy. One crucial and challenging task in PV systems is tracking the maximum power point (MPP), which is essential for enhancing their efficiency. Aim. PV systems face two main challenges. Firstly, they exhibit low efficiency in generating electric power, particularly in situations of low irradiation. Secondly, there is a strong connection between the power output of solar arrays and the constantly changing weather conditions. This interdependence can lead to load mismatch, where the maximum power is not effectively extracted and delivered to the load. This problem is commonly referred to as the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) problem various control methods for MPPT have been suggested to optimize the peak power output and overall generation efficiency of PV systems. Methodology. This article presents a novel approach to maximize the efficiency of solar PV systems by tracking the MPP and dynamic response of the system is investigated. Originality. The technique involves a multivariate linear regression (MLR) machine learning algorithm to predict the MPP for any value of irradiance level and temperature, based on data collected from the solar PV generator specifications. This information is then used to calculate the duty ratio for the boost converter. Results. MATLAB/Simulink simulations and experimental results demonstrate that this approach consistently achieves a mean efficiency of over 96 % in the steady-state operation of the PV system, even under variable irradiance level and temperature. Practical value. The improved efficiency of 96 % of the proposed MLR based MPP in the steady-state operation extracting maximum from PV system, adds more value. The same is evidently proved by the hardware results. References 24, table 4, figures 14.Документ Determination of the maximum mechanical stresses in the insulating material around a defect with a high dielectric permittivity in an electrostatic field(Національний технічний університет "Харківський політехнічний інститут", 2024) Palchykov, O. О.Introduction. All insulating macrohomogeneous solid materials change shape under the influence of an electric field. Problem. The presence of minor defects changes the distribution of an electric field and causes a significant concentration of mechanical stresses in a given section of the material, which, under certain circumstances, can cause partial or complete destruction of this material. Goal. The purpose of the work is to determine maximum mechanical stresses according to the von Mises criterion in insulating materials around defects with ionized air and water in an electrostatic field. Also, to analyze the influence of the following parameters on the indicated stresses: the location of the defect, the orientation angle of the semi-major axis of the defect cross-section, the ratio of semi-major and semi-minor axes, elastic and dielectric properties of the insulating material and the defect. Methodology. The study is based on the interrelated equations of electrostatics and structural mechanics for an isotropic piecewise homogeneous medium. The solution of these equations is obtained by the finite element method. Results. Graphs of dependences of maximum mechanical stresses on the ratio of semi-major and semi-minor axes of the ellipsoidal cross-section of the defect have been obtained. The minimum ratio of the greatest stresses in the insulating materials around the surface cracks and pores for ionized air has been 9.3 times for the maximum ratio of major and minor semi-axes of the cross-section of the defect considered in the work, which is 10. For a water defect, the similar ratio has been 2...5.6 times, increasing when the relative dielectric permittivity of the insulating material changes from 7 to 2. When Young’s modulus of the insulating material increases from 1 MPa to 100 GPa, the angles of the inclination of the linearized dependences of maximum mechanical stresses around bounded pores with ionized air (water) to the axis of the ratio of major and minor semi-axes of the defect cross-section have been increased by 35.9° (58.0°) and 18.6° (20.1°) at orientations of major semi-axes at angles of 0° and 45°, respectively. Originality. The numerical-field mathematical two-dimensional model has been developed for the first time, which consists of sequentially solved equations of electrostatics and structural mechanics, for the determination of the distribution of mechanical stresses in an insulating material with a liquid or gaseous defect. It has been established for the first time that the ratio of the elastic properties of the insulating material and the defect determines the angle of the inclination of the linearized dependence of the maximum mechanical stress to the axis of the ratio of major and minor semi-axes of the defect cross-section. Practical value. The types of defects that contribute to the aging of insulation materials under the combined action of an electric field and a stress field to the greatest extent have been established. References 28, table 1, figures 10.Документ Requirements for cables as categories of construction products and thermal resistance of power cables(Національний технічний університет "Харківський політехнічний інститут", 2024) Bezprozvannych, G. V.; Grynyshyna, M. V.; Moskvitin, Y. S.Introduction. One of the main driving factors of the demand for cable and conductor products is the modern trend of urbanization, which leads to an increase in cities with significantly increased requirements for electrical networks of transportation and distribution of electrical energy. This requires the development of appropriate infrastructure with significant demand for electricity in the commercial, industrial and residential sectors. The construction industry uses a wide range of cables with an appropriate set of electrical and mechanical properties, resistance to the influence of external climatic factors, and, first of all, must meet fire safety requirements. Increasing construction activity is stimulating the market for fire-resistant cables in the construction industry. According to the Construction Products Regulation, power, telecommunication cables, data cables, control and management, fiber optic refer to construction products in the EU member states. These cables are intended for the supply of electrical energy and communication, which are permanently installed in buildings and other engineering structures. Power, telecommunications, data and control cables are considered construction products, and are the only electrical products classified as construction. Over the next 15 years, Eastern Europe is expected to see increased growth in the construction industry, as the end of the war in Ukraine requires nearly $1 trillion in reconstruction. A strategic task in the reconstruction of the country is the use of cable and conductor products with increased operational properties, including in the construction industry. Significant efforts and investments in innovation and certification of cable and conductor products require manufacturers to create construction products of the "Power, control and communication cables" category with a high level of fire safety in accordance with the Euroclassification of cables in terms of reaction to fire depending on the level of safety. Purpose. Analysis of fire safety requirements for cables as a category of construction products and determination of thermal resistance of power cables based on experimental thermal studies of modern electrical insulating compositions. Methodology. The thermal stability of power cables with a voltage of 0,66/1 kV was determined, depending on the design, based on the conducted experimental studies of the thermal stability of electrical insulation materials, between the core filling and the polymer sheath, removed from the cable samples. On the basis of the conducted correlation analysis between thermal resistance and fire load, which are important parameters for confirming the quality and safety of the entire cable, it has been proven that the efficiency of halogen-free compositions to meet fire safety requirements increases with the increase in the cross-section and number of cores in the cable. Practical value. Determining the heat load and fire resistance of cables of various designs and areas of application based on the obtained experimental data on the heat of combustion of polymer cable materials is necessary and justified at the stage of mastering and determining the prospects for the production of cables with modern halogen-free electrical insulation compositions in accordance with fire safety requirements. References 40, figures 6.Документ Modeling and analysis of electro-thermal processes in installations for induction heat treatment of aluminum cores of power cables(Національний технічний університет "Харківський політехнічний інститут", 2024) Shcherba, A. A.; Podoltsev, O. D.; Suprunovska, N. I.; Bilianin, R. V.; Antonets, T. Yu.; Masluchenko, I. M.Introduction. The development of the electric power industry is directly related to the improvement of cable lines. Cable lines meet modern requirements for reliability, they are increasingly used. Problem. Currently, power cables with an aluminum multi-conductor core, which requires heat treatment - an annealing process at the stage of the technological manufacturing process, are widespread. This process makes it possible to desirably reduce the electrical resistance of the wire and increase its flexibility. For effective use of induction heating during annealing of an aluminum core, it is necessary to determine the optimal frequency of the power source of the inductor. Considering the long length of the inductor and the large number of its turns, the numerical calculation of the electromagnetic field, which is necessary for calculating the equivalent electrical parameters of the turns of the inductor and its efficiency, requires significant computer resources. The goal is to develop a computer model for calculating electro-thermal processes in an induction plant for heating (up to the annealing temperature) an aluminum core of a power cable moving in the magnetic field of a long multi-turn inductor, as well as obtaining frequency dependences of the equivalent R, L parameters of such an inductor and determining the optimal the value of the frequency of the power source, which corresponds to the maximum value of the electrical efficiency of the inductor. Methodology. The mathematical model was developed to analyze the coupled electromagnetic and thermal processes occurring in a core moving in a time-harmonic magnetic field of an inductor at a constant speed. The differential equations for the electromagnetic and temperature fields, taking into account the boundary conditions, represent a coupled electro-thermal problem that was solved numerically by the finite element method using the Comsol software package. For a detailed analysis of the electromagnetic processes in the inductor, an additional problem was considered at the level of the elementary cell, which includes one turn of the inductor and a fragment of the core located near this turn. Results. According to the results of the calculation of the electromagnetic field in the area of the elementary cell, the equivalent electrical parameters of one turn of the inductor and the entire multi-turn inductor were calculated depending on the frequency of the electric current. The frequency dependences of the electrical efficiency of the inductor were calculated. Originality. Taking into account the design features of the inductor (its long length and large number of turns), the method of multiscale modeling was used. Electro-thermal processes in the core were studied at the macro level, and the distribution of the electromagnetic field and electric current density in the cross-section of the massive copper turn of the inductor was calculated at the micro level – at the level of an elementary cell containing only one turn of the inductor. The frequency dependences of the equivalent R, L parameters of the inductor, taking into account the skin effect, the proximity effect, and the geometric effect, were obtained, and the quantitative influence of the electric current frequency on these effects was studied. Practical value. The dependence of the electrical efficiency of the inductor on the frequency of the power source was obtained and it was shown that for effective heating of an aluminum core with a diameter of 28 mm, the optimal value of the frequency is in the range of 1–2 kHz, and at the same time the electrical efficiency reaches values of ηind = 0.3–0.33, respectively. References 31, figures 10, table 1.Документ Computer simulation of operation plant effective modes for water disinfection by electrical discharges in gas bubbles(Національний технічний університет "Харківський політехнічний інститут", 2024) Boiko, M. I.; Tatkova, K. S.Purpose. Determination by means of computer simulation of the most efficient modes of operation of the installation for water disinfection using discharges in gas bubbles, in which (modes) the amplitude of voltage pulses at the processing unit and on the layer of treated water is not less than the voltage amplitude immediately after the switching discharger. Methodology. To achieve this goal, we used computer simulation using Micro-Cap 10. We used two different electrical circuits that simulate the operation of the experimental setup in two different modes: in a mode with a restoring electrical strength of the discharge gap in the gas bubble between two adjacent voltage pulses on the discharge node and in the mode without restoring this dielectric strength. In computer simulation, we varied the following factors: the maximum simulation step, inductances, capacitances, active resistances, wave resistance of a long line, and the delay time for the operation of a spark gap simulating a discharge gap in a gas bubble. Results. Computer modeling has shown that in order to increase the voltage amplitude at the treatment unit and on the layer of treated water, it is necessary to reduce the load capacitance – the capacitance of the water layer in the treatment unit to 10 pF or less, to increase the active resistance of the water layer to 500 or more. An important factor for increasing the voltage and electric field strength in the discharge unit and, consequently, for increasing the efficiency of treated water disinfection is the discharge delay time in gas bubbles. The most rational delay time for the operation of the arrester, which is the gap in the gas bubble inside the water, under the conditions considered by us is 4–5 ns. It is with this delay time that the amplitude of voltage pulses at the node of disinfecting water treatment and on the layer of treated water is maximum, all other things being equal. Furthermore, with such a delay time this amplitude of voltage pulses significantly exceeds the voltage amplitude directly after the main high-voltage discharger, switching energy from the high-voltage capacitive storage to the processing unit through a long line filled with water. Originality. Using computer simulation, we have shown the possibility of increasing the voltage at the discharge unit of the experimental setup by 35 % without increasing the voltage of the power source. This provides a higher efficiency of microbiological disinfection of water by nanosecond discharges in gas bubbles and lower specific energy consumption. Practical value. The obtained results of computer simulation confirm the prospect of industrial application of installations using nanosecond discharges for disinfection and purification of wastewater, swimming pools and post-treatment of tap water. References 15, figures 10.Документ A generalized physical principle of development of plasma channel of a high-voltage pulse spark discharge in a dielectric(Національний технічний університет "Харківський політехнічний інститут", 2024) Baranov, M. I.Goal. Development of the generalized physical principle of development of plasma channel of a high-voltage electrical pulse spark discharge in the homogeneous dielectric of the different aggregate state. Methodology. Basis of physical optics, theoretical electrical engineering, electrophysics bases of technique of high-voltage and large pulse currents, bases of high-voltage pulse technique and measuring technique. Results. Development of physical principle of development of plasma channel of an electric pulse spark discharge is executed in a homogeneous gas dielectric on the applied example of the use in calculations and experiments of the double-electrode discharge system (DEDS) with a long air interval, testing action of standard interconnect аperiodic pulse of high-voltage of temporal shape of Tₘ /Тd ≈200 μs/1990 μs of positive polarity. The generalized formula is got for the calculation of total length of l c of the real way of development of an pulse spark discharge in an air dielectric, which allowed to formulate the offered physical principle in the following kind: "The plasma channel of an pulse spark discharge in a gas dielectric spreads from one of its points to other after a way length of l c, providing the least falling on it of electric voltage of Uc". It is shown that this principle in the first approaching can be applied and to the homogeneous liquid and hard dielectrics. Comparison of the developed physical principle of distribution of plasma channel of an electrical spark discharge is executed in a dielectrical environment with fundamental Fermat physical principle (a law) for distribution of light in an optically transparent environment, which specifies on mathematical likeness and closeness on destiny of these physical principles. Calculation estimations of falling of electric voltage of Uc on total length of l c of the real zigzag way of development in the air dielectric of DEDS a "edge-plane" with the least length of its discharge interval of lmin=1,5 m is presented, that a value Uc does not exceed 9 % from the experimental level of aggressive voltage of U≈611,6 кV in this DEDS for the аperiodic pulse of voltage of Tₘ/Тd≈200 μs/1990 μs. It is set that the estimated time of td advancement of leader channel of electric pulse discharge in air DEDS (lmin=1,5 m) on its real way total length of l c≈1,53 m makes t d≈15,3 μs, and experimental duration of cut of Tdc of the indicated аperiodic impulse of voltage utilized in experiments, characterizing time of short circuit by the plasma channel of discharge of air interval in DEDS, appears equal Тdc≈t d≈17 μs. Originality. The generalized physical principle of development of plasma channel of a high-voltage electrical pulse spark discharge is first developed in the homogeneous dielectric of the different aggregate state. Practical value. Application in electrical engineering practice and high-voltage pulse technique of the offered principle of distribution in the dielectrics of plasma channel of an pulse spark discharge will allow to develop both new and to perfect the existent methods of computer design of electro-discharge processes in the gas, liquid and hard insulation of different high-voltage electrical power engineering and electrophysics devices, directed on the increase of reliability of their operation. References 25, figures 5.Документ Method for prediction and control by uncertain microsatellite magnetic cleanliness based on calculation and compensation magnetic field spatial harmonics(Національний технічний університет "Харківський політехнічний інститут", 2024) Kuznetsov, B. I.; Nikitina, T. B.; Bovdui, I. V.; Chunikhin, K. V.; Kolomiets, V. V.; Kobylianskyi, B. B.Aim. Development of method for prediction and control the microsatellite magnetic cleanliness taking into account the uncertainties of the magnetic characteristics of the microsatellite, based on calculation the magnetic field spatial spherical harmonics in the area of the onboard magnetometer installation and using compensating multipoles. Methodology. Spatial spherical harmonics of microsatellite magnetic field in the area of the onboard magnetometer installation calculated as solution of nonlinear minimax optimization problem based on near field measurements for prediction far spacecraft magnetic field magnitude. Nonlinear objective function calculated as the weighted sum of squared residuals between the measured and predicted magnetic field. Values of the compensating dipoles, quadrupoles and octupoles and coordinates of them placement inside the spaceship for compensation of the dipoles, quadrupoles and octupoles components of the microsatellite initial magnetic field also calculated as solution of nonlinear minimax optimization problem. Both solutions of this nonlinear minimax optimization problems calculated based on particle swarm nonlinear optimization algorithms. Results. Results of prediction spacecraft far magnetic field magnitude based on spacecraft spatial spherical harmonics of the magnetic field using near field measurements and compensation of the dipoles, quadrupoles and octupoles components of the initial magnetic field with consideration of spacecraft magnetic characteristics uncertainty for ensuring the microsatellite magnetic cleanliness. Originality. The method for prediction and control by spacecraft magnetic cleanliness based on calculation spatial spherical harmonics of the magnetic field in the area of the onboard magnetometer installation using compensation of the dipoles, quadrupoles and octupoles components of the initial magnetic field with consideration of magnetic characteristics uncertainty is developed. Practical value. The important practical problem of ensuring the magnetic cleanliness of the «Sich-2» microsatellite family based on the spatial spherical harmonics of the magnetic field model using the compensation of the dipole, quadrupole and octupole components of the output magnetic field of the sensor for the kinetic parameters of the neutral component of the space plasma at the point of installation of the on-board magnetometer LEMI-016 by setting the compensating dipole, quadrupole and octupole with consideration of spacecraft magnetic characteristics uncertainty solved. References 59, figures 2.Документ Analysis of suitable converter for the implementation of drive system in solar photovoltaic panels(Національний технічний університет "Харківський політехнічний інститут", 2024) Themozhi, G.; Srinivasan, K.; Arun Srinivas, T.; Prabha, A.Introduction. Photovoltaic (PV) systems gained immense attraction in the recent years since it produces electricity without causing environmental pollution through direct conversion of solar irradiance into electricity. Solar PV panels produce DC power. The magnitude of this DC power varies with temperature and irradiance of the sun rays. The DC supply from solar panels can be regulated using DC-DC converter and then can further be converted into the desired AC voltage by means of a voltage source inverter before being fed to an induction motor (IM). The speed and torque of an IM, fed from PV arrays, can vary due to the variation in the output power of the panels. Goal of this work is to improve the dynamic performance and reduce the torque ripple of Cuk converter-inverter fed IM drive system. The novelty of the current work proposes interleaved Cuk converter between solar PV DC source and the inverter. Purpose. To provide continuous current using an interleaved Cuk converter to the IM drive and in turn to reduce the torque ripple in IM. Methodology. Introduced an interleaved Cuk converter which is a blend of Cuk converters connected in parallel with each other between solar PV arrays and IM drive system. Originality. Simulation results are obtained for Cuk converter and interleaved Cuk converter fed IM drive by means of MATLAB. The hardware setup for the same IM systems is developed. Practical value. Simulation and hardware results are coincided with each other and it is subject from the simulation and hardware results that the interleaved Cuk converter-inverter fed IM system produced results superior than the Cuk converter inverter fed IM drive system. References 25, table 2, figures 22.Документ Total harmonic distortion analysis of inverter fed induction motor drive using neuro fuzzy type-1 and neuro fuzzy type-2 controllers(Національний технічний університет "Харківський політехнічний інститут", 2024) Srinivas, G.; Durga Sukumar, G.; Subbarao, M.Introduction. When the working point of the indirect vector control is constant, the conventional speed and current controllers operate effectively. The operating point, however, is always shifting. In a closed-system situation, the inverter measured reference voltages show higher harmonics. As a result, the provided pulse is uneven and contains more harmonics, which enables the inverter to create an output voltage that is higher. Aim. A space vector modulation (SVM) technique is presented in this paper for type-2 neuro fuzzy systems. The inverter’s performance is compared to that of a neuro fuzzy type-1 system, a neuro fuzzy type-2 system, and classical SVM using MATLAB simulation and experimental validation. Methodology. It trains the input-output data pattern using a hybrid-learning algorithm that combines back-propagation and least squares techniques. Input and output data for the proposed technique include information on the rotation angle and change of rotation angle as input and output of produced duty ratios. A neuro fuzzy-controlled induction motor drive’s dynamic and steady-state performance is compared to that of the conventional SVM when using neuro fuzzy type-2 SVM the induction motor, performance metrics for current, torque, and speed are compared to those of neuro fuzzy type-1 and conventional SVM. Practical value. The performance of an induction motor created by simulation results are examined using the experimental validation of a dSPACE DS-1104. For various switching frequencies, the total harmonic distortion of line-line voltage using neuro fuzzy type-2, neuro fuzzy type-1, and conventional based SVMs are provided. The 3 hp induction motor in the lab is taken into consideration in the experimental validations. References 22, tables 3, figures 15.Документ Design and experimental implementation of voltage control scheme using the coefficient diagram method based PID controller for two-level boost converter with photovoltaic system(Національний технічний університет "Харківський політехнічний інститут", 2024) Latreche, Kamel; Taleb, Rachid; Bentaallah, Abderrahim; Toubal Maamar, Alla Eddine; Helaimi, M'hamed; Chabni, FayçalIntroduction. Currently, in the solar energy systems and a variety of electrical applications, the power converters are essential part. The main challenge for similar systems is controller design. In the literature, the PID controller has proved its effectiveness in many industrial applications, but determining its parameters remains one of the challenges in control theory field. The novelty of the work resides in the design and experimental implementation of a two-level boost DC-DC converter controlled by a PID controller for photovoltaic (PV) maximum power extraction. Purpose. Analysis and control of the two-level boost topology with renewable energy source and design of the PID controller parameters using simple and accurate method. Methods. PID coefficients are optimized using Coefficient Diagram Method (CDM) in the MATLAB environment. Results. A mathematical model of a two-level boost converter with PID controller and PV energy source was developed and analyzed. The model allows to design the controller parameters of the proposed system. Practical value. A prototype steered by the proposed CDM-PID controller was tested using an Arduino embedded board. A comparison between the simulation results and the experimental one is presented. The obtained results illustrate that the experimental results match the simulation closely, and the proposed CDM-PID controller provides a fast and precise results. References 24, table 2, figures 16.